It always interested me what makes us human feel good. If you are at work, writing your thesis, in a relationship or during a hobby, what can you do to experience joy? What are the feelings (i.e. emotions) that make me feel good?
Emotions are the foundation of what makes us human. During the past decades scholars have produced a multitude of studies that investigate emotions from a cognitive (Lazarus 1991; Schachter 1971), affective (Hirschman, 1983) and evolutionary perspective (Plutchik, 1991, 2003). From a cognitive and affective perspective, emotions arise as impulses about the individual’s perceived environment. An emotion occurs when relevant stimuli are perceived in the environment and are interpreted subjectively as impulses of this emotion. From an evolutionary perspective emotions are adaptive processes. Evolutionists state that emotions have a purpose in the lives of each individual. There are impulses that do not need to be interpreted subjectively in order to be experienced emotionally.
Retailers, for instance, are able to stimulate emotions via the social environment, the service interface, the retail atmosphere, the assortment, the price, and the retail brand. Particularly, hedonic consumption is a subjective and experiential activity, like web surfing, shopping or watching movies. These activities involve emotions like playfulness, excitement, increased involvement, spontaneity, arousal or even joy, but why?
Joy has been widely studied by many happiness researchers (e.g. Frey & Stutzer, 2002). Joy refers to the emotion people experience when they break through the limits of homeostatic – when they do something that stretches them beyond what they were – in an athletic event, a good movie or a stimulating shopping trip. Happiness advocates argue that happiness might stimulate short-term affective states such as joy depending on the consumer’s personal values and life circumstances.
Joy is distinct from pleasure and arousal: Pleasure and arousal are emotions that come from satisfying homeostatic needs such as hunger, sex, and bodily comfort, whereas the concept of joy requires the consumer to break through their homeostatic limits. Addressing this gap, Csikszentmihalyi (1975) developed the so-called flow theory. The theory of flow gives a completely new angle to the emotional aspects of joy. The theory of flow describes all the positive feelings that generate a flow state in the human's mind. In a consumption context this flow state may particularly emphasise the relevant affects to take action, namely making a decision and finally dare to say yes to something you wouldn't have without joy. Now, what can we do to experience flow?
In short, there are two things you can do to feel a state of flow and, hence, joy.
1 Devote yourself completely to what you do, no matter what!
In flow, people have a feeling of themselves working perfectly (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975). Their focus shifts from themselves to the on-going task until their entire attention is absorbed by the task. Absolute devotion and intensive concentration on the action temporarily create a world without the typical problems and worries of everyday life. In this state of being, results do not matter. It is assumed intuitively that the right decisions are being made.
2 Reward yourself, extrinsic rewards disrupt joy
Csikszentmihalyi (1993) argues that every human can experience flow independent of age, gender, cultural origin or social and socio-economical position. Money and alternative positive external attributes can provide comfort for flow but extrinsic stimuli are not essential. Instead, intrinsic rewards drive flow.
If you are at work, in a relationship or just doing your hobby, devoting yourself completely to it and reward yourself afterwards is the best thing you can do to feel joy. Do it now and tell me if I was right or wrong in the comment section.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1993). The Evolving Self: A Psychology for the Third Millennium. New York: Harper Collins.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975). Beyond Boredom and Anxiety: Experiencing Flow in Work and Play. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Frey, B. S., & Stutzer, A. (2002). Happiness and Economics, Princeton, Oxford: Princeton University Press.
Hirschman, E. C. (1983). Aesthetics, Ideologies and the Limits of the Marketing Concept. Journal of Marketing, 47(3), 45–55.
Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Emotion and adaption. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Plutchik, R. (1991). The Emotions. New York: University Press of America.
Plutchik, R. (2003). Emotions and life: Perspectives from psychology, biology, and evolution. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Schachter, S. (1971). Emotion, obesity, and crime. New York: Geniza.